Traffic lights to keep drivers waiting on red to cut air pollution

Smart traffic light system that uses AI to predict increases in air pollution and keep drivers waiting on red for up to 20 seconds longer than normal to be trialled in Britain THIS YEAR

  • Traffic lights connected to an AI-powered system will begin trials this year 
  • Wolverhampton ring road will be the first place to use the system
  • Historical records and live readings will help predict spikes of pollution  
  • Traffic heading into these areas will be held at red lights for longer to limit influx of vehicles to these places  

Britain’s traffic lights are set to undergo a smart revolution to help combat rising levels of air pollution. 

Wolverhampton is the first place in the country to approve a trial of an AI-powered system that manipulates red and green lights to restrict traffic heading into air pollution hotspots.

The system, built from scratch by Surrey-based Now Wireless, gathers data on pollutant concentrations from historical records and sensors on the ground. 

An algorithm then combines this with traffic patterns to predict locations likely to see a spike in air pollution within the next hour.

Drivers heading towards these locations will then be faced with red lights lasting up to 20 seconds longer than usual, to slow traffic influx to the affected area.  

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Wolverhampton is the first in the country to approve a trial of an AI-powered system that will manipulate red and green lights to restrict function to air pollution hotspots. Pictured, an aerial file photo of the Wolverhampton ring road 

The system, built from scratch by Surrey-based Now Wireless, gathers data on pollutant concentrations from historical records and sensors on the ground. Bluetooth sensors track information on traffic and an AI unit then processes this information and control the traffic lights to lower air pollution levels 

Data from inside cars feeds into the system, with Bluetooth signals sent via phones and cars being picked up by sensors at traffic lights. 

This helps the computer system curate a forecast of specific locales due for an influx of vehicles. 

People driving out of these areas will be shown prolonged green lights to help speed up the flow of traffic from areas that are heavily polluted. 

The system can then be adjusted in real-time as the patterns change, constantly manipulating traffic and reducing fumes spewed into the atmosphere by idling cars. 

John Charles, Wolverhampton’s traffic manager, told The Times the system will help reduce air pollution to safe and legal limits.   

‘Traditionally we wait for devices to sniff the air and calculate what the situation is whereas [this system] is looking to do that an hour in advance,’ he said.  

Some cities have attempted to curb emissions and pollution levels in cities by charging an entry-fee, with London using a congestion charge. 

Other major cities such as Bath and Birmingham have considered implementing daily entry fees. 

However, Mr Charles says such a system would not be viable for Wolverhampton. 

He says the system will avoid spikes in air pollution around the city and will instead come at the expense of areas with lower air pollution levels. 

The idea is to create a consistent level of pollutants around the city and spread the load for the greater good of public health.  

Revealed: MailOnline dissects the impact greenhouse gases have on the planet – and what is being done to stop air pollution

Emissions

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the biggest contributors to global warming. After the gas is released into the atmosphere it stays there, making it difficult for heat to escape – and warming up the planet in the process. 

It is primarily released from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas, as well as cement production. 

The average monthly concentration of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere, as of April 2019, is 413 parts per million (ppm). Before the Industrial Revolution, the concentration was just 280 ppm. 

CO2 concentration has fluctuated over the last 800,000 years between 180 to 280ppm, but has been vastly accelerated by pollution caused by humans. 

Nitrogen dioxide 

The gas nitrogen dioxide (NO2) comes from burning fossil fuels, car exhaust emissions and the use of nitrogen-based fertilisers used in agriculture.

Although there is far less NO2 in the atmosphere than CO2, it is between 200 and 300 times more effective at trapping heat.

Sulfur dioxide 

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) also primarily comes from fossil fuel burning, but can also be released from car exhausts.

SO2 can react with water, oxygen and other chemicals in the atmosphere to cause acid rain. 

Carbon monoxide 

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an indirect greenhouse gas as it reacts with hydroxyl radicals, removing them. Hydroxyl radicals reduce the lifetime of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. 

Particulates

What is particulate matter?

Particulate matter refers to tiny parts of solids or liquid materials in the air. 

Some are visible, such as dust, whereas others cannot be seen by the naked eye. 

Materials such as metals, microplastics, soil and chemicals can be in particulate matter.

Particulate matter (or PM) is described in micrometres. The two main ones mentioned in reports and studies are PM10 (less than 10 micrometres) and PM2.5 (less than 2.5 micrometres).

Air pollution comes from burning fossil fuels, cars, cement making and agriculture 

Scientists measure the rate of particulates in the air by cubic metre.

Particulate matter is sent into the air by a number of processes including burning fossil fuels, driving cars and steel making.

Why are particulates dangerous?

Particulates are dangerous because those less than 10 micrometres in diameter can get deep into your lungs, or even pass into your bloodstream. Particulates are found in higher concentrations in urban areas, particularly along main roads. 

Health impact

What sort of health problems can pollution cause?

According to the World Health Organization, a third of deaths from stroke, lung cancer and heart disease can be linked to air pollution. 

Some of the effects of air pollution on the body are not understood, but pollution may increase inflammation which narrows the arteries leading to heart attacks or strokes. 

As well as this, almost one in 10 lung cancer cases in the UK are caused by air pollution. 

Particulates find their way into the lungs and get lodged there, causing inflammation and damage. As well as this, some chemicals in particulates that make their way into the body can cause cancer. 

Deaths from pollution 

Around seven million people die prematurely because of air pollution every year. Pollution can cause a number of issues including asthma attacks, strokes, various cancers and cardiovascular problems. 

 

Asthma triggers

Air pollution can cause problems for asthma sufferers for a number of reasons. Pollutants in traffic fumes can irritate the airways, and particulates can get into your lungs and throat and make these areas inflamed. 

Problems in pregnancy 

Women exposed to air pollution before getting pregnant are nearly 20 per cent more likely to have babies with birth defects, research suggested in January 2018.

Living within 3.1 miles (5km) of a highly-polluted area one month before conceiving makes women more likely to give birth to babies with defects such as cleft palates or lips, a study by University of Cincinnati found.

For every 0.01mg/m3 increase in fine air particles, birth defects rise by 19 per cent, the research adds. 

Previous research suggests this causes birth defects as a result of women suffering inflammation and ‘internal stress’. 

What is being done to tackle air pollution? 

Paris agreement on climate change

The Paris Agreement, which was first signed in 2015, is an international agreement to control and limit climate change. 

It hopes to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2°C (3.6ºF) ‘and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C (2.7°F)’.

Carbon neutral by 2050 

The UK government has announced plans to make the country carbon neutral by 2050. 

They plan to do this by planting more trees and by installing ‘carbon capture’ technology at the source of the pollution.

Some critics are worried that this first option will be used by the government to export its carbon offsetting to other countries.

International carbon credits let nations continue emitting carbon while paying for trees to be planted elsewhere, balancing out their emissions.

No new petrol or diesel vehicles by 2040

In 2017, the UK government announced the sale of new petrol and diesel cars would be banned by 2040. 

From around 2020, town halls will be allowed to levy extra charges on diesel drivers using the UK’s 81 most polluted routes if air quality fails to improve.

However,  MPs on the climate change committee have urged the government to bring the ban forward to 2030, as by then they will have an equivalent range and price.

The Paris Agreement, which was first signed in 2015, is an international agreement to control and limit climate change. Pictured: air pollution over Paris in 2019.

Norway’s electric car subsidies

The speedy electrification of Norway’s automotive fleet is attributed mainly to generous state subsidies. Electric cars are almost entirely exempt from the heavy taxes imposed on petrol and diesel cars, which makes them competitively priced.

A VW Golf with a standard combustion engine costs nearly 334,000 kroner (34,500 euros, $38,600), while its electric cousin the e-Golf costs 326,000 kroner thanks to a lower tax quotient. 

Criticisms of inaction on climate change

The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) has said there is a ‘shocking’ lack of Government preparation for the risks to the country from climate change. 

The committee assessed 33 areas where the risks of climate change had to be addressed – from flood resilience of properties to impacts on farmland and supply chains – and found no real progress in any of them.

The UK is not prepared for 2°C of warming, the level at which countries have pledged to curb temperature rises, let alone a 4°C rise, which is possible if greenhouse gases are not cut globally, the committee said.

It added that cities need more green spaces to stop the urban ‘heat island’ effect, and to prevent floods by soaking up heavy rainfall. 

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